Sir Francis Drake: El Dragon
Sir Francis Drake was a pirate/privateer known as 'El Dragon,' the first ever English pirate to sail across the world. He led ships against the Spanish
Sir Francis Drake
Main in West Indies and Central America. At age 24, he was made captain of the Judith. The well-mannered pirate led 27 ships that aimed to capture Panama in 1595, but failed. He survived, but lost many of his ships in Juan Ulua. He is known for his attack on the Spanish treasure ship, 'The Cacafuego' in 1597. Because of the retrieval of the ship's valuables, Queen Elizabeth came aboard his ship, the Golden Hind, to knight him. With his discovery he gained wealth and power. After his death, his body was burnt with his ship.

By: Alethea

Sir John Hawkins
John Hawkins: A Knight, but a Notorious Slaver

Born in Plymouth, Devon of England in 1532, this knight, slave trader, and naval administrator, was known more widely as Sir John Hawkins. Hawkins first started slave trading when he took a cargo of Negros from West Africa to the Spanish Main and sold them illegally in small towns on Hispaniola. He continued these piratical acts in 1564, when he collected 400 slaves and sold them in the small port of Rio de la Hacha against the Spanish official's decision. Then in 1567 he continued pirating, and attacked some Portuguese ships.
In 1569, Sir John Hawkins was then hired as a Elizabethan Privateer. Elizabethan Privateers were lawful pirates who were hired by their government to attack treasure ships from enemy nations. In 1588, the English sighted the Spanish Armada off the coast of England. Sir John Hawkins and the English Navy fought them and destroyed the Armada. After the incident, Hawkins was knighted and appointed Chief Administrator of the English Navy for his brave service in helping fight in the Armada. Sir John Hawkins came to his death seven years later in the Caribbean Sea near Puerto Rico, but know one knows why.

By: Cassie

Edward Teach- Blackbeard
Blackbeard at his best
The Ribbon Pirate
Edward Teach, also known as Blackbeard is probably the most famous pirate figure ever known to man. Born in Bristol, England, he was famous for many things. He is probably most famous for his fascination for braiding his beard with black ribbons. No one knows how this crazy obsession started, but it is most likely that he thought it made him manlier. He probably turned to piracy because of unemployment.

His ship was the plague of the seas, the Queen Ann's Revenge. When he put up his flag, it were usually of the country of the people he was attacking, probably to confuse his enemies. When he got close, he put up his regular flag to scare them, and then he attacked. He died at North Carolina in 1718 by a man named Robert Maynard. That was the end of Teach.

By: Max

"Calico" Jack Rackham
A reproduction of Calico's flag

Calico Jack was a very diverse pirate, this is because he dismissed the superstition that women were bad luck on a ship and let Mary Reed and Anne Bonny on his ship, incognito of course. He turned to pirating purely for adventure, just like Stede Bonnet. Calico himself did not start as a captain, instead he was a first mate to Blackbeard himself! In 1720, Woodes Rodgers killed Calico. He was maimed, tarred and hanged by Woodes. A horrible death indeed!

By: Max

Anne Bonny: A Notorious Celebrity
Anne Bonny going about her horrible business as a pirate.

Some may be familiar with the female pirate, Anne Bonny. She was tough and terrible tempered from beginning to end. She lived with her father in an old house in South Carolina and is said to have murdered a maid during an argument. She was forced to leave the house once her father knew of her love, James Bonny, a known pirate. After their marriage, James gave up piracy. Anne, who wanted to continue sailing the seas, left him and joined Calico Jack's crew disguised as a man, where she met her lifelong friend, Mary Reade.
On an attack led by Captain Barnet, Mary and Anne were fighting by themselves because the men, who were all drunk, were hidden below the deck. They were overcome and taken to Port Royal for a trial. Their hangings were canceled, for they were both pregnant. Some say Anne had another woman care for her child so she could continue piracy, others say that Bonny and Reade raised their children together in a village, but her true fate remains a mystery.

By: Alethea

Mary Reade: A Female Incognito

Mary Reade

Her life story, which comes from an almost certainly fictional book by Charles Johnson, may or may not be true, but is certainly interesting. This woman, Mary Reade, was born in England in about 1690. As a teenager, she worked as a boy for a French woman. She escaped, and went to serve on a warship, but soon ran away to join the British army. There, Reade married one of the soldiers. When he died, she sailed away on a ship to the West Indies in the 1700's. Her ship was then captured by pirates, and then she, disguised as a boy, decided to accompany them to New Providence. She stayed and fought with them, and one day their ship was captured by Captain Jack Rackham's Vanity. Another woman disguised as a man was Anne Bonney, who was already part of the crew, and they soon discovered each others secret and became close friends.

In 1720, the ship was surprisingly attacked and all of the men hid below the deck. Reade and Bonney were left to defend the ship themselves and, after fighting hard, they were eventually defeated by all the pirates. The crew was soon taken to Jamaica to stand trial. The trial had excited everyone, and the female pirates were accused of breaking the rules of society, and the court reported that the were ready and willing to do anything, and swore a lot. When the judge asked if they had anything to say, they said to spare them for now because they were both pregnant. The British law forbade killing an unborn child, so there execution was postponed.

Some say Mary Reade died of a violent fever in the Spanish Town prison before her child was born, others say she escaped and lived hidden for the rest of her life, but yet others say she escaped with Anne Bonney and then moved to Louisiana, where they raised their children together, and were friends for the rest of their lives.

By: Cassie

Black Bart

Bartholomew Roberts- "Black Bart"
Bartholomew Roberts was one of the most accomplished pirates of the Golden Age of Piracy. He had a short, less than four-year career, though he captured more than four hundred ships. Bartholomew was born John Roberts. He became Bartholomew Roberts after he was captured in June of 1719 by Howell Davis. Roberts was forced to join Davis's crew. Around a month later, Davis was ambushed and killed by the governor of Principe Island. In the short time that Bartholomew was on the ship, he was proven loyal and elected as Davis's successor (Geocities 1). When Roberts accepted, he stated "It is better to be a commander than a common man, since I have dipped my hands in muddy water and must be a pirate." He was henceforth known as 'Black Bart' (Geocities 1).

He sailed to Brazil, during which time he captured a Dutch ship and burned an English slave ship. In September, he encountered forty-two Portuguese traders escorted by two seventy-gun warships (Geocities 1). He attacked and captured a larger, stronger ship that had thirty thousand pounds in gold coins on it. In June of 1720, Roberts' men captured twenty-six sloops and 150 fishing boats, and destroyed sheds and machinery along the shore. He grabbed an eighteen gun galley and traded it for a twenty-eight gun French ship, renaming it the 'Royal Fortune' (Geocities 2). He sailed south and plundered at least twelve English merchantmen. Bartholomew is reputed to have tortured and killed French prisoners. The 'Fortune' was replaced by the 'Good Fortune.' Roberts had acquired three ships in his fleet, the Fortune, Good Fortune, and Royal Fortune. By April 1721, Roberts had lost the Good Fortune to Thomas Anstis who had been given command of it and renamed it the 'Ranger' (Geocities 2).

January 11th, 1722 Roberts captured eleven slave ships that he ransomed for eight pounds of gold dust each. One of the captains refused to pay, and his ship was burned along with the slaves that were on it. On February 5th, a British man-of-war, the 'Swallow,' captained by Challoner Ogle caught Roberts near Cape Lopez in Gabon. Some say that mistook the Swallow for a Portuguese trader and went to fight it. Once in range, Ogle sent a bombardment of cannon fire. When the smoke cleared, Bartholomew was seen slumped over a cannon, dead. The crew showing loyalty to him, threw his body overboard rather than letting it fall into the hands of the enemy(Geocities 2).

By: Riley

Samuel Bellemy: Bigger, Better Ships

Samuel Bellamy
Samuel Bellamy was born in late winter in 1689 in Devon, England. The early days of his pirate career are unclear, but it is said that the man was found while he was a seaman working on the salvage of a Spanish shipwreck. They say he got into an argument with the project leaders and he left, then deciding to turn pirate. Others say he wanted to marry someone but needed money, so he went to a shipwreck and tried to uncover some treasure. He found none and decided to raid Spanish ships for money.

Bellamy, the self styled Robin Hood of the Seas, eventually ended up with a sloop at some point and wanted a larger ship. He moved into another captured ship, a square-rigged ship called the Sultana, and handed over control of the sloop to his quartermaster, Paul Williams. Later, in 1717, Bellamy and Williams captured the Whydah, a British slave ship. The Whydah was a 300 ton ship rigged galley, and it carried 28 guns.

On May 17, 1717 the Whydah was shipwrecked, and Bellamy was lost, but two of his crew members survived. Even so, they were quickly discovered and hanged.

By: Cassie

Charles Vane: Unlucky and Unpopular

Charles Vane
Like most pirates, Charles Vane's early history is not documented. Even so, most think that this British pirate's career started in about 1716. In July of 1718, Vane sailed his first independent cruise, using New Providence as his base. In late August of 1718, armed vessels were sent after Vane by some colonial governments, but he evaded them all. In about 1718, Vane was raiding ships, until he realized that William Rhett was hunting him. He let let word go out that he was headed south, but he actually headed north toward the Windward Passage, and he avoided capture at this time.

While at the Windward Passage, Vane was faced with a dilemma. Vane had spotted a ship and intended to plunder it, but then realized that it was a French warship. He turned and fled, but his crew disagreed with his decision. The argument rose when the quartermaster, 'Calico' Jack Rackham, accused Vane of cowardice. The crew made a demonstration of his unpopularity by voting Rackham the new captain. Vane was then given a small captured sloop and was sent away with a few loyal crew members.

In February of 1719, Vane's sloop was wrecked on a reef and only he and a seaman survived. He was rescued by a passing ship, but when they realized he was Charles Vane, they turned him in because they wanted nothing to do with any pirates. Vane was identified as a notorious pirate and taken prisoner and shipped to Port Royal, Jamaica to stand trial. He was found guilty and was hanged in November of 1720 at Gallow's Point.

By: Cassie

Stede Bonnet
The flag of Stede Bonnet.
The Gentleman Pirate

Stede Bonnet was about the strangest, and most unlikely pirate of all. The people of Barbados were surprised that the army Major turned pirate. In 1717, instead of stealing a ship, Stede purchased his ship, the Revenge. One other strange thing he did was pay his men out of his own money! What a strange pirate.

Later on in life, Stede gave himself up to the people of North Carolina. But, while reforming, Stede returned to piracy once again! William Rhett captured him in 1718 near Charlestown, South Carolina. That same month, Stede was hung by the neck and brought into pirate history forever.

By Max

Howell Davis

Howell Davis
Howell Davis was the master of fooling the senators and governors. In 1718, Howell Davis became a pirate when his slave ship, the Cadogan, was captured by Edward England. Instead of being killed, he and a few others decided to become pirates.

He was known for being a master at deception. When he came before the governors who were trying him for piracy, he said he was a privateer and to let him pass. He also got by with it, and fooled them again later on. He died when he and a band of crewmen were ambushed by Portuguese militia. Howell was shot dead on the island of Principe that day. The remaining crewmen elected Bartholomew Roberts as captain. Howell Davis had a short and very sly life (Konstam 114&115).

By: Colton

Thomas Tew
Thomas Tew
Thomas Tew was a pirate that grew up in Rhode Island. He was a privateer that turned to piracy when the two privateer ships got separated. It is said that he told his crew "It is better to risk our lives for plunder than government" (Konstam 126). Tew was known as 'the Rhode Island Pirate' because of his Rhode Island heritage (Wikipedia 1). He was also known as one of the richest pirates ever. He was not the fiercest pirate around, though. His opponents hardly even put up a fight (if they did at all!). No one knows how he earned his fierce reputation, or if he deserved it at all. Perhaps when people heard about the money, they thought he wasn't to be trifled with.

Thomas Tew went on two pirate voyages. The first voyage was when he earned all the money, yet he only attacked one ship! It was a huge Indian merchant ship that surrendered quickly even though it held 300 soldiers! He sold the boat and settled down to live in the colonies. That wasn't the end of his pirate career, though. He bought another ship, gathered some crew members, and set off again.
After some success, Tew and his crew met a ship unlike any other. It resisted! There was a brutal fight. It ended with a cannonball piercing open his stomach and middle body, and he died instantaneously. His crew was so shocked by his death they surrendered immediately. They were captured and probably executed.

By: Adam

William Kidd
The Kidd

Probably the most famous "pirate" ever, Kidd was actually a privateer against the French! Kidd captured his most valuable prize, the Armenian ship Quedagh Merchant, in January 1698 and gave away the unseaworthy Adventure Galley.

In May 1701, he was found guilty of murder of a sailor and of five counts of piracy. Important evidence concerning two of the piracy cases was suppressed at the trial, and some observers later questioned whether the evidence was sufficient for a guilty verdict.

By: Max

Henry Every (Avery)
Henry Every
Henry Avery became a very famous pirate. Before he started his career as a pirate, Henry served in the Royal Navyon the HMS Ruppert for about four months. "He was then promoted to chief mate of the sixty-four-gun vessel in 1689 under command of Captain Francis Wheeler" (Vallar 1). Then, In June of the next year, Captain Wheeler became captain of HMS Albemarle and Avery went with him. "The next surviving documentary record of Avery lists him as a crew member of the Charles II in 1693" (Vallar 1). He then became the first mate of the vessel in 1694. Avery then led a mutiny on May 7 and took over the ship while the captain was drunk. He was then named 'The Successful Pirate' because of the riches he obtained. About a year later, Avery vanished after he landed at Dunfanaghy, about thirty miles from Londonderry in County Donegal, Ireland. Some people say they saw him after vanishing, but nobody figured out if it was him (Vallar 4, Belanger 1).

By: Anthony

Edward England
Edward is Marooned
Edward England was a famous pirate. Before he was a pirate captain, he was a mate on a trading sloop that eventually got captured. The pirate that captured the sloop was Captain Winter. Edward worked on his ships, but he soon escaped with a crew of his own. Once he got his ship ready, he went out to sea and captured many ships that were very valuable such as the Pearl. After a while, he had many ships that were manned by his most trustworthy crewmen.

One day Edward England tried to capture the Cassandra, but they put up more of a fight than he thought they would. In the end though, the crew surrendered. The crew was held as captives, but since England was too soft-hearted to kill them, they were let go. England's crew ended up marooning Edward England on an island off of Madagascar where he later died (Konstam 132-133, Brethren of the Coast 1-2).

By: Kaitlin

Sir Henry Morgan
Sir Henry Morgan

Sir Henry Morgan did great things for Jamaica. This is how it all happened: Henry Morgan was born in 1635 in Llanrhymny in Glamorgan, Wales. He was later kidnapped and taken to Barbados as a servant. He shortly escaped and joined the buccaneers of Jamaica. The buccaneers voted Sir Henry their admiral. In the autumn of 1668, he commanded his own ship.

One of Sir Henry's first missions was to save Jamaica from a Spanish invasion. He succeeded on his endeavor. After many more successful missions, he became a much feared pirate. In fact, it is thought that Sir Henry was the most successful buccaneer ever. England's hero, Sir Henry, died in peace in 1688 as the lieutenant governor of Jamaica. As you can see, Sir Henry was a hero to Jamaica, and helped it prosper during the Golden Age of Piracy. (Wikipedia 1, The Pirates Realm 1)

By: Brooke

Jean L'Olonnais

Jean L'Olonnais
Jean L'Olonnais was a French buccaneer who was regarded as the cruelest man of his time. L'Olonnais went to the Caribbean in 1650. After three years as an indentured servant, he joined cattle hunters at Hispaniola, and then turned to piracy. He then moved to Tortuga Island and received a ship from the French governor, an adventurer and buccaneer in his own right.

His first attacks on Spanish shipping were profitable, and he granted Spaniards little mercy. Altogether, the buccaneers divided up coins and jewels worth 260,000 pesos. Back in Tartua, their spoils soon vanished, because they wasted it on trivial things. Their mistreatment of prisoners made it harder to take Spanish prizes. Instead of surrendering, merchant ships "fought all they could." He defeated the Spaniards, and a remaining prisoner quickly suggested a route that would not be protected by troops. Buccaneers captured and burned San Pedro, but found little booty. Disappointed with their spoils, his captains deserted with the smaller boats while L'Olonnais sailed to Nicaragua in a captured Spanish vessel. It became shipwrecked and many of the dejected buccaneers sailed home in the ship's boat . L'Olonnais decided to march to the Gulf of Darien, but on the way he and his small band were attacked by cannibals. L'Olonnais was killed and probably eaten (Konstam 82&83).

By: Dylan S.

Rock (Roche) Braziliano
Roche Brasiliano started his buccaneering career in 1654 after the Dutch captured Bahia, in Brazil. Roche started his career because he got in a fight with his ship's captain, so he and the crew sailed away in the boat while the captain was in a pub. A half-year later, he was captured by the Spanish. He wrote a letter to the governor of the city he was in saying that his friends outside would pillage the town if they killed him. They sent him to Spain where he escaped. Later on, he went back to the city but was run aground so he and his crew had to abandon ship. They started toward a pirate city, but were intercepted by the Spanish Cavalry. They held them back with musket fire and escaped in canoes. Brasiliano took over a small craft which he used to capture a merchant ship. After that, he went back to Port Royal to live in peace. While he lived in Port Royal, Brasiliano went around inviting people to have wine with him or be shot. In his bad moods, he would chop off the arm or leg of the first person he saw.

By: Nick

Bartolomeo el Portugues
Bartolomeo el Portuges
Bartolomeo el Portugues started his buccaneer career in 1655, right after the English took over Jamaica. He started his career as a pirate because he was poor and he was greedy. His career didn't work out very well, and many called him "unlucky" after a series of events in his life. The first event was when Bartolomeo was captured by three Spanish ships. He escaped by using two wine jugs and floating with them to the shore. He traveled through 120 miles of forest and came out at the Golfo Triste.

When he got a new boat and crew, he went out to take revenge on the Spanish ships that had captured him. He captured the ship he had been on when he was imprisoned and sailed away. He ran aground on the Isle of Pines, and had to abandon ship. His bad luck still following him, he started going around on the coast and killing and torturing Spaniards he caught to get money until he died.

By: Nick

Michel de Grammont
Around the 1670s, a man...a pirate...a mystery, rose. Michel de Grammont was born in Paris, and besides that little about him is known. In the 1670s, de Grammont was in the Caribbean, where he commanded a French vessel. When he illegally captured a Dutch vessel, he was unable to return to France, so he decided to stay in Saint Dominique. In 1678, Holland and France declared war, and Michel de Grammont, along with other buccaneers, decided to raid the island of Curacao (which belonged to the Dutch). They raided with over 1,200 men, but the fleet was trapped in a storm leaving them on the reefs on the Aves Islands. Some ships were wrecked, but once the storm passed, the ships returned to Saint Dominique. Around this period of time, Michel de Grammont became commander of the buccaneers, but his forces were too weak to attack Curacao. So in 1678 using captured horses, he lead his men to assault Trujillo, here he captured a large haul of "booty."

In 1683, de Grammont joined forces with a French buccaneer to attack Vera Cruz, Mexico. The raiders took 4,000 prisoners to a nearby island, where they were held for ransom. De Grammont was not prosecuted for his actions. In 1685, de Grammont and de Graff also joined forces to attack Campeche, Mexico. For three months, the Spanish held the city, but finally the buccaneers succeeded. The buccaneers attempted ransom, but instead the city was burned when the buccaneers left.

After that, Michel de Grammont planned yet another raid on Mexico, despite his promises of respect. By April 1686, he was working off of the Yucatan peninsula, but withdrew to the northeast due to storms. He planned an attack on Spanish Florida, but was somehow separated from his fleet. Michel de Grammont and his ship were never seen again (Konstam 88&89).

By: Molly

Kanhoji Angria
Kanhoji Angria
Little is known about Kanhoji Angria, but that can change. Born in India, this African Muslim grew up doing dangerous exploits at sea, but this news doesn�t tell us how this man became a successful pirate. Kanhoji began by attacking merchant ships of the British East India Company. By doing this, he slowly, but surely gained power. When Martha Chattrapati Shahu ascended the leadership of the Martha Kingdom, he appointed Balaji Viswanth as commander. Martha Shahu made a powerful agreement with Kanhoji. Under this agreement, Kanhoji Angria became head of the Martha Navy (Wikipedia 1).

During his pirating reign, Angria built bases. His first base was at the Martha fort, Vijaydurg meaning 'Victory.' The fort was first built by a Martha Ruler, and the base has a hollowed out entrance to allow merchant vessels. Angria built other bases on the two islands, Khanderi and Underi islands. As more and more bases were constructed, a kingdom was being formed. Late in 1729, after hard work and many successful attacks, Kanhoji Angria died. Unlike some pirates, he died naturally. His pirate realm became a pirate haven, and his two successors were his two sons, Sumbaji and Mannaji. The two sons divided their father's land giving Sumbaji the island strongholds and Mannaji the southern land bases. Sumbaji continued the harassment, and when he died his half brother Toolaji took over, and he too continued to harass the British. Soon the pirate realm was overthrown, and what is probably one of the most successful pirate kingdoms slowly faded away (Konstam 135).

By: Molly

Uluj Ali
Uluj Ali

Who was Uluj Ali? Be ready to find out in 'Uncovering Uluj Ali!' His name originally was Giovanni Dionigi, until 1519 when he was captured by Ali Ahmed (one of the Barbarossa corsairs). Uluj, after being forced to serve as a galley slave, embraced the Muslim faith and became the corsair 'Uluj Ali.' Uluj Ali served under the Ottoman Turks fleet as a scout in 1560, which was a very powerful and barbaric fleet of corsairs. In 1571, after marooning two of his crew members, Uluj Ali was named to Supreme Commander. After 16 years as the Supreme Commander, he died on June 21, 1587 in Istanbul. He was buried at the mosque that the architect Sinan had built for him in the final years of his life (Wikipedia 1). Now that you've learned a little bit about Uluj Ali, you will understand what made him such a powerful pirate in his day.

By: Quinton

John Paul Jones
Piracy for Freedom
John Paul Jones in battle
John Paul Jones in battle

When he first became a US naval officer, John Paul Jones hoisted the flag on his first commissioned ship, The Alfred. Later, Congress made him captain of the Ranger. Whilst captaining said ship, he attacked the British port of Whitehaven. He then made plans to abduct the Earl of Selkirk and hold him for ransom. His plan failed due to the Earl's absence. Years later, he was booted out of the Russian Navy for assaulting a young girl. He then spent the rest of his life in Paris where he died lonely and forgotten in 1792.

By: David

Jean Laffite: Mischievous Pirate of the Bayous

Jean Laffite, the Pirate of Louisiana.
The pirate of New Orleans, Jean Laffite, has a vague childhood. He started as a blacksmith. In 1810, he began raiding Spanish ships and illegally trading slaves and stolen goods. Jean and his brothers were arrested in 1812, but good lawyers proved them innocent and they were released, however, his illegal acts continued. When the governor offered $500 reward for his capture, Laffite offered $5,000 on the governor's head as revenge.

It was a close encounter when his ship was attacked in Barataria Bay, Jean Laffite hid in the bayous accompanied by others. In 1820, he was attacked by Captain Biddle and is said to have escaped. There is no record of his later life.

By: Alethea

Don Pedro Gilbert

Don Pedro Gilbert

Pedro Gilbert was known to be born around 1800 in South America. He served as a privateer for Columbia "preying on Spanish ships during South America's struggle for independence" (Konstam 158). Gilbert grew fond of the name 'Don' and was from then on known as 'Don' Pedro Gilbert.

Dead Cats Don't Mew

On September 20, 1832, the Panda, Gilbert's ship, attacked the ship the Mexican, which was in route from Salem, Massachusetts, to Buenos Aries in Argentina. The ship was ransacked. When the crew of the Panda asked Gilbert what to do with the prisoners, he replied, 'Dead cats don't mew.' So the crew locked the crew of the Mexican in the lower quarters of the ship and set the ship ablaze. However, one crewman managed to squeeze out of the cell and let everyone out of the ship. They successfully put out the fire, and when they reported the attack, Gilbert was a wanted man. "He was found by the British and turned over to the United States along with eleven other crew members"(Konstam 158). Two crewmen were let free, six were sent to rot in jail, and Gilbert and three other crewmen were sentenced to death. Gilbert and the crewmen were the last pirates ever hung in the United States of America.

By: Sam G.

benitosoto.jpgBenito de Soto

Benito de Soto was one of the world's most feared pirates. In the year of 1827, he got on board the ship The Defense de Pedro. It was headed to Africa. He and his mate immediately began taking over the ship. After he conquered it, he renamed it The Black Joke. He sailed in the Caribbean, Atlantic, Spain, Europe, The Cape of Good Hope, coast of Brazil, Africa, and finally Gibraltar. When de Soto attacked, he would sell slaves, abuse women, and take all of the valuables. When he arrived in Gibraltar, he was arrested and hung. That is the story of Benito de Soto's piratical life (Pirate Encyclopedia 1; Konstam 160 & 161).

By: Ben H. (6th)

Kuo Hsing Yeh

Kuo Hsing Yeh

Kuo Hsing Yeh is more commonly known as Koxinga. He was born in 1624. He became a pirate around 1650 when he took over his father's "home-made empire" (Konstam 173). He killed his father and then, at age 22, saw the Manchu Dynasty as his one and only enemy. Hsing Yeh eventually attacked the Manchu ships enough that they fled the area. This led him to be considered a hero in Taiwan. He continued selling and trading pirates for money. He died in 1683, at age 38, from malaria. It is interesting that he is both considered to be a hero and an evil man (Konstam 173, Wikipedia 1&3).

By: Ben H

Sir Christopher Myngs

What was Sir Christopher Myngs' goal when he became a privateer?
Sir Christopher lived a life of contradictions. He was a military man, a privateer, and a leader. When Sir Christopher arrived in Port Royal he was in command of the 44-gun ship "Marston Moore." He later demonstrated that buccaneers can also help with strategy planning. Sir Christopher Myngs decided to split up his fleet hoping to achieve surprise with a smaller force, against his enemies. He was later on arrested and sent back to England. When he was released from prison he proceeded with capturing ships.
Portrait of Sir Christopher Myngs.

Why was Sir Christopher Myngs commander or captain so often?

When Sir Christopher Myngs first turned to piracy, he immediately sided with the parliament. He combined orders to protest against the English Colonies of Jamaica. Everyone said that Myngs always saw the best way to defend his ship. He had so much skill and because of that he was able to conquer many Spanish cities and was able to take control of six Spanish war ships. He served an extensive amount of time as a privateer and during that time he never gave up and always had a relentless pursuit.

By: Geneva

The Barbarossa Brothers
The Barbarossa Brothers
The Barbarossa Brothers
The Barbarossa Brothers were the most famous pirates ruling under the Turkish Empire. They were born on an island called Lebos, in Greece, and their father was a retired Turkish soldier, married to a native woman. Aruj Barbarossa was a corsair, captured by the Knights of Rodes, a religious order combining piracy with religious favor. He served as a galley slave until an Egyptian ruler freed him. Aruj sent for his brother, Hizir, and together they proved themselves as worthy captains and became pirates. They sailed around the area of Libya, Algeria, and Italy. They were in a big war with the Spainards. Aruj lost an arm on an attack of a Spanish-held fort. Seeking for revenge, he attacked them two years later, yet failed a second time.They became Spain's worst enemies, stealing from shipping boats and other Spanish pirates. Aruj led an attack on Spain, but he lost and was killed. Hizir, now in charge, allied himself with the Ottoman emperor and sent Ottoman troops to defend his territory. Now, Hizir led successful attacks on Spain possessions. Hizir died in 1547, but now the Ottoman had more control throughout the Mediterranean.

By: Megan

Ching Yih: The Pirate Coalition

Ching Yih was the son of a Chinese pirate. Ching Yih became a pirate himself. By the time he was 36, he commanded a fleet of junks (a type of Chinese ship).
Mrs. Ching Yih
Mrs. Ching Yih

Over the years, Ching Yih gathered 400 pirate junks and over 70,000 pirates in his confederation. He was blown overboard in a gale in 1807, where he presumably drowned. His wife was slightly more famous than he himself was. She made many very strict laws such as if a pirate pillaged from a village that regularly helped the pirates it was considered a capital offense. She was apparently famous enough to make it into the third Pirates of the Caribbean movie.

By: David